# LSGAN has a setup similar to WGAN. However, instead of learning a critic function, LSGAN learns a loss function. The loss for real samples should be lower than the loss for fake samples. This allows the LSGAN to put a high focus on fake samples that have a really high margin. Like WGAN, LSGAN tries to restrict the domain of their function.

The LSGAN is a modification to the GAN architecture that changes the loss function for the discriminator from binary cross entropy to a least squares loss. The motivation for this change is that the least squares loss will penalize generated images based on their distance from the decision boundary.

In this work, a 3D attention denoising network for the removal of low-count PET artifacts and estimation of HC PET images was proposed; this network is called 3D a-LSGAN. 2020-11-06 LSGAN, or Least Squares GAN, is a type of generative adversarial network that adopts the least squares loss function for the discriminator. Minimizing the objective function of LSGAN yields minimizing the Pearson $\chi^{2}$ divergence. For discriminator, least squares GAN or LSGAN is used as loss function to overcome the problem of vanishing gradient while using cross-entropy loss i.e. the discriminator losses will be mean squared errors between the output of the discriminator, given an image, and the target value, 0 or 1, depending on whether it should classify that image as fake or real. 2021-01-13 loss proposed in LSGAN [20] to avoid this phenomenon and maintain the same function as adversarial loss in original CycleGAN. For the reference domain R, the loss is deﬁned by: LLSGAN(G,DR,T,R 2019-09-25 I am wondering if there is a way to compute two different but similar losses (reusing elements from one another) in order to compute gradient and backprop through a model.

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For discriminator, least squares GAN or LSGAN is used as loss function to overcome the problem of vanishing gradient while using cross-entropy loss i.e. the discriminator losses will be mean squared errors between the output of the discriminator, given an image, and the target value, 0 or 1, depending on whether it should classify that image as fake or real. 2021-01-13 loss proposed in LSGAN [20] to avoid this phenomenon and maintain the same function as adversarial loss in original CycleGAN. For the reference domain R, the loss is deﬁned by: LLSGAN(G,DR,T,R 2019-09-25 I am wondering if there is a way to compute two different but similar losses (reusing elements from one another) in order to compute gradient and backprop through a model. In my problem I have 2 mo CycleGAN loss function.

## GAN Least Squares Loss is a least squares loss function for generative adversarial networks. Minimizing this objective function is equivalent to minimizing the Pearson $\chi^{2}$ divergence. The objective function (here for LSGAN ) can be defined as:

I made LSGAN implementation with PyTorch, the code can be found on my GitHub. In both the upper and lower bounds of the optimal loss, which are cone-shaped with non-vanishing gradient. This suggests that the LS-GAN can provide su cient gradient to update its LS-GAN generator even if the loss function has been fully optimized, thus avoiding the vanishing gradient problem that could occur in training the GAN [1].

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There are two bene・》s of LSGANs over regular GANs. The LSGAN can be implemented with a minor change to the output layer of the discriminator layer and the adoption of the least squares, or L2, loss function.

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Minimizing the objective function of LSGAN yields minimizing the Pearson χ 2 divergence. The objective function can be defined as: GAN Least Squares Loss. GAN Least Squares Loss is a least squares loss function for generative adversarial networks. Minimizing this objective function is equivalent to minimizing the Pearson $\chi^ {2}$ divergence.

this loss is applied in both CycleGAN directions, synthetic-to-real and real-to-synthetic. LSGAN dùng L2 loss, rõ ràng là đánh giá được những điểm gần hơn sẽ tốt hơn. Và không bị hiện tượng vanishing gradient như hàm sigmoid do đó có thể train được Generator tốt hơn.

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Learn advanced techniques to reduce Explore the morphology and dynamics of deep learning optimization processes and gradient descent with the A.I Loss Landscape project. Aug 11, 2017 Lecture 3 continues our discussion of linear classifiers. We introduce the idea of a loss function to quantify our unhappiness with a model's Prevent.

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### WGAN-GP and LSGAN versions of my GAN both completely fail to produce passable images even after 25 epochs. I use nn.MSELoss() for the LSGAN version of my GAN. I don’t use any tricks like one-sided label smoothing, and I train with default learning rats in both the LSGAN and WGANGP papers.

Even more than that, GazeGAN uses label smoothing on top of the LSGAN loss: while the discriminator aims to output 1 on real examples and 0 on refined synthetic images, the generator smoothes its target to 0.9, getting the loss function. this loss is applied in both CycleGAN directions, synthetic-to-real and real-to-synthetic.

## A 31 year old woman who was 11 weeks pregnant presented with sudden loss of vision in her left eye, which occurred after a typical migraine headache with a visual aura. However, the visual aura persisted and remained as a central scotoma.

In regular GAN, the discriminator uses cross-entropy loss function which sometimes leads to vanishing gradient problems. Instead of that lsGAN proposes to use the least-squares loss function for the discriminator. WGAN-GP and LSGAN versions of my GAN both completely fail to produce passable images even after 25 epochs. I use nn.MSELoss() for the LSGAN version of my GAN. I don’t use any tricks like one-sided label smoothing, and I train with default learning rats in both the LSGAN and WGANGP papers. Trong series GAN này mình đã giới thiệu về ý tưởng của mạng GAN, cấu trúc mạng GAN với thành phần là Generator và Discriminator, GAN loss function.

The problem arises when the GAN optimizes its loss function; it's actually optimizing the … - Selection from Advanced Deep Learning with Keras [Book] we use the Least-Squares GAN (LSGAN) loss-function [8], and employ Spectral Normalisation [9] in the discriminator. We now describe ﬁrstly the initial simple adversarial approach, and then our improved adversarial approach in detail. 4.1 Adversarial Approach Here's an example of the loss after 25 epochs on CIFAR-10: I don't use any tricks like one-sided label smoothing, and I train with the default learning rate of 0.001, the Adam optimizer and I train the discriminator 5 times for every generator update.